This is not a simple, binary issue of print vs digital reading and technological innovation. As MIT scholar Sherry Turklehas written, we do noterras a society when we innovate, but when we ignore what we disrupt or diminishwhile innovating. In this hinge moment between print and digital cultures, society needs to confront what is diminishing in the expert reading circuit, what our children and older students are not developing, and what we can do about it.
We know from research that the reading circuit is not given to human beings through a genetic blueprint like vision or language;it needs an environment to develop. Further, it will adapt to that environments requirements from different writing systems to the characteristics of whatever medium is used. If the dominant medium advantages processes that are fast, multi-task oriented and well-suited for large volumes of information, like the current digital medium, so will the reading circuit. As UCLA psychologist Patricia Greenfield writes, the result is that less attention and time will be allocated to slower, time-demanding deep reading processes, like inference, critical analysis and empathy, all of whichare indispensable tolearning at any age.
Increasing reports from educators and from researchers in psychology and the humanities bear this out. English literature scholar and teacher Mark Edmundson describes how many college students actively avoid the classic literature of the 19
thand 20 thcenturies because they no longer have the patience to read longer, denser, more difficult texts. We should be less concerned with students cognitive impatience,however,than by what may underlie it: the potential inability of large numbers of students to read with a level of critical analysis sufficient to comprehend the complexity of thought and argument found in more demanding texts, whether in literature and science in college, or in wills, contractsandthe deliberately confusingpublic referendum questions citizens encounter in the voting booth.
Multiple studies showthatdigital screen usemay be causinga variety of troubling downstream effects on reading comprehension in older high school and college students. In Stavanger, Norway, psychologist Anne Mangen and her colleagues studiedhow high school students comprehend the same materialindifferent mediums. Mangens group askedsubjects questions about a short story whose plot haduniversal student appeal (a lust-filled, love story); half of the students readJenny, Mon Amouron a Kindle, the other half in paperback. Results indicated that students who read on print were superior in their comprehension to screen-reading peers, particularly in their ability to sequence detail and reconstruct the plot in chronological order.
Ziming Liu from San Jose State University has conducted a series of studies which indicate that the new norm in reading is
skimming, with word-spotting and browsing through the text. Many readers now use an F or Z pattern when reading in which they sample the first line and then word-spot through the rest of the text.Whenthe reading brain skimslike this, it reducestime allocated to deep reading processes. In other words, we dont have time to grasp complexity, to understand anothers feelings, to perceive beauty, and to create thoughts of the readers own.
Multiple studies show that digital screen use may be causing a variety of troubling downstream effects on reading. Photograph: Westend61/Getty Images/Westend61
Karin Littau and Andrew Piperhave notedanother dimension: physicality. Piper, Littau and Anne Mangens group emphasize that the sense of touch in print reading adds an important redundancy to information a kind of geometry to words, and a spatial thereness for text. As Piper notes, human beings need a knowledge of where they are in time and space that allows them to return to things and learn from re-examination what he calls the technology of recurrence. The importance of recurrence forbothyoung and older readersinvolves the ability to go back, to check and evaluate ones understanding ofatext. The question, then, iswhat happenstocomprehension when our youth skim on a screen whose lack of spatial thereness discourages looking back.
US media researchers Lisa Guernsey and Michael Levine, American Universitys linguist Naomi Baron, and cognitive scientist Tami Katzir from Haifa Universityhaveexaminedthe effects of differentinformationmediums, particularly on the young. Katzirs researchhas foundthat the negative effects of screen reading can appear as early as fourth and fifth grade -with implicationsnot onlyforcomprehension, but also on the growth of empathy.
The possibility that critical analysis, empathy and other deep reading processes could become the unintended collateral damage ofourdigital culture is not a simple binary issue about print vs digital reading. It is about how we all have begun to read on any medium and how that changes not only what we read, but also the purposes for why we read. Nor is it only about the young. The subtle atrophy of critical analysis and empathy affects us all.It affectsour ability to navigate a constant bombardment ofinformation.It incentivizes aretreat to the most familiar silos of unchecked information,whichrequire and receive no analysis, leaving us susceptible to false information and demagoguery.
Theres an old rule in neuroscience that does not alter with age: use it or lose it. It is a very hopeful principle when applied to critical thought in the reading brain because it implies
choice. The story of the changing reading brain is hardly finished. We possess both the science and the technology to identify and redress the changes in how we read before theybecomeentrenched. If we work to understand exactly what we will lose, alongside the extraordinary new capacities thatthe digital world has brought us,there is as much reason for excitement as caution.
We need to cultivate a new kind of brain: a bi-literate reading brain capable of the deepest forms of thought ineither digital or traditionalmediums
.A great deal hangs onit: the abilityof citizens in a vibrant democracy to try on other perspectives and discern truth; the capacity of ourchildren and grandchildrento appreciate and create beauty; and the ability in ourselves to go beyondour present glut of information to reach the knowledge and wisdom necessary to sustain a good society.
Maryanne Wolf is the author of Reader, Come Home: The Reading Brain in a Digital World